Taekwon-do (taekwondo, taekwondo, English taekwondo - from Korean te - "heel kick while jumping", kwon - "punching", do - "way", "self-improvement") - one of the types of martial arts , a characteristic feature of which is a large number of jumps and kicks and an almost complete absence of techniques for capturing and holding the opponent.
The founder of Taekwon-Do is Lieutenant General of the South Korean Army Choi Hong Hee, who created this martial art on the basis of taekken (the old name is "gaxul", "taekgyon" - the art of wrestling with feet, anciently known in Korea) and karate. In addition, according to Choi Hong Hee, the art of fighting that he created gives a person the opportunity to self-knowledge and increase the spiritual level through the practice of daegwon (martial art).
At first, this direction was widespread only among the military, was of a purely applied nature and was called "O do kwan" ("School of the enlightened path"). Somewhat later, the so-called civilian direction appeared - "Chon do Kwan". On April 11, 1955, this self-defense technique was officially called taekwon-do.
The International Taekwon-do Federation (ITF) was established on March 22, 1966 in Seoul. 19 countries entered this organization, and Choi Hong Hee was the permanent president of the ITF for 36 years. Since he was forced to emigrate to Canada, the headquarters of the organization was moved in 1972 to Toronto, and from 1985 to the present is located in Vienna.
A student of the general who remained in Toronto, a former chairman of the ITF technical committee Park Jun Tae, in March 1990 founded the Global Taekwon-do Federation (GTF).
Since November 30, 1972, there has been a World Taekwon-Do Center in Seoul, located in the specially built Kukkiwon Palace - this is where every athlete who has received a dan must register in order to be recognized by the World Taekwon-do Federation ( WTF).
This organization, created on May 28, 1973, aimed to include this type of martial arts in the Olympics program. For the first time, taekwon-do was demonstrated at the XXIV Olympic Games (Seoul (South Korea)), and since 2000 (XXVII Olympiad, Sydney (Australia)) this sport has been ranked among the Olympic ones.
Today, there are 188 WTF member countries that form continental federations:
• 41 countries - Asia Taekwon-Do Union;
• 49 countries - European Taekwon-Do Union;
• 42 countries - Pan American Taekwon-Do Union;
• 43 countries - African Taekwon-Do Union;
• 13 countries - Oceania Taekwon-Do Union.
• In 1981, the DPRK Taekwon-Do Federation was formed.
Taekwon-do regularly hosts World Championships, European Championships, international and national championships and championships, including competitions in several disciplines: the performance of a formal complex ("pumse"), tests to identify the force of impact (on the ground - "pole" and in a jump - "tekgi"), as well as competitive fights ("matsogi") using protective equipment. Moreover, in the ITF version, athletes use only groin and shin protectors, while in the WTF version they are required to fight in special plastic armor and a helmet.
Taekwang-do competitions are held on the 12x12 or 14x14 meters area, in the center of which is the place of the fight - an 8x8 meter square with an elastic mat located on it, the color of which should harmoniously match the colors of the athletes' equipment, and the surface texture should ensure the minimum degree of light reflection so as not to dazzle combatants and spectators. The place of the fight is marked along the perimeter with a dividing line, and sometimes it is arranged on a platform whose height is 1 meter.
The course of the bout is watched by the referee located 1.5 meters from the center of the site, 4 judges located at points 0.5 meters away from the corner formed by the boundary lines, as well as the leading score - his place is 2 meters from the boundary line. The state of equipment and physical condition of athletes is monitored by an inspection located at the table at the entrance to the place of the fight.
Competitions between male athletes last 3 rounds of 3 minutes (or 2 minutes each, if agreed with the WTF), the duration of the fight between women and juniors is 2 minutes. Breaks between rounds - 1 minute. There are several systems of fights:
• Round robin system - each participant of the competition fights with all other athletes of his weight category taking part in the competition;
• Individual fights ("Olympic" system) - 2 athletes participate in the bout, the loser is eliminated from the competition. Most often, competitions of this kind take place at the Olympic Games. Competitors are divided into weight categories, and if there are less than 4 participants in any category, the competitions in this weight category will not be officially recognized.
Team competitions are held in the following way: one team nominates an athlete-participant, and the second one selects an opponent for him from his own personnel. Therefore, representatives of different weight categories can sometimes meet in fights of this kind.
Olympic Taekwon-Do is very different from the original. Yes, there are many differences. In Olympic taekwon-do, punches are not used, and there are no competitions demonstrating the level of mastery of the techniques of this martial art. In addition, fighters are required to perform in special protective equipment (vests, helmets, protectors on fists and feet, groin protectors and a bib for women), as a result of which the effectiveness of many techniques is significantly reduced. The modernization of the Olympic taekwon-do, although it is underway, has one goal - to increase the spectacularity of the fight, as a result of which the applied significance of this martial art is sometimes completely lost.
Young children cannot be prepared for Taekwon-Do. This is not true. For practicing Taekwon-Do, flexibility, endurance, memory, ingenuity, mobility of thinking are important, as well as the ability to group correctly when falling in order to avoid injury - these are the qualities that should be developed in a baby. Even if your child does not show interest in any kind of martial arts in the future, he will be able to use all of the above skills in everyday life.
The owners of the brown belt of Taekwon-Do are well aware of the techniques of this martial art - after all, they help the trainer in teaching beginners, and sometimes replace him. Indeed, the owners of brown belts are obliged to carry out instructor work. However, the modern system of assigning colored belts (except for black) according to the results of the competition leads to the fact that quite often athletes have sparring skills (geerugi) at a fairly high level, but their knowledge of technology (hosinsul) is much less.
Taekwon-do is an invention of Lieutenant General Choi Hong Hee. Like many modern martial arts, Taekwon-Do is a synthesis of several ancient ways of fighting. In the middle of the last century in Korea, there were many schools of various martial arts (subak, tegen, yusul ("soft art") tansudo ("the path of the tang (Chinese) hand"), chharyok ("borrowed power"), etc.), operating without any control from government agencies. The government of the country decided to change this state of affairs and, if possible, combine the various arts of warfare, gain control over the teaching of martial arts and put them at the service of the state and the ruling regime. Plans of this kind were most easily accomplished through the creation of a single combat that would be able to absorb all the best from the long-standing systems and thereby facilitate their merger. One of these areas was developed by Choi Hong Hee, who combined the skills of taekken (an ancient art of kicking, known in Korea since ancient times), acquired during his studies with Han Il Dong, a master of calligraphy and taekken, and the experience gained in karate classes, which Lieutenant General mastered in Japan. Choi Hong Hee began to hone his skills during a seven-year imprisonment in a Japanese prison, where he was imprisoned as an active fighter for the independence of Korea. After his release, he served in the army, where he got the opportunity to test, polish and put into practice a new martial art, which on April 11, 1955 was officially named Taekwon-Do. However, the improvement of this system did not end there. The grinding of the originally installed system of 20 complexes, some of which were kata karate, some of which were innovations developed by Choi Hong Hee, not only the general himself, who was forced to leave his homeland for some time, but also the masters who remained in Korea - they developed "eight trigrams" ("palgve") - a set of eight complexes. In the 70s of the last century, kata karate was finally removed from taekwon-do, and the techniques and techniques were thoroughly studied using the latest methods of modern science. The "palgwe" complexes were replaced by another set, also consisting of 8 complexes, called the "great limit" ("teguk") and characterized by a higher speed of movement. In addition, a set of 9 complexes was developed, which are mandatory for everyone who wants to get the title of master. And only in the 80s, the polishing of this martial art was completed - now in the ITF Taekwon-do 24 complexes - according to the number of hours in a day.
Only Choi Hong Hee tried to combine the existing martial arts in Korea. Misconception. Attempts of this kind have been carried out several times in the last century, the most famous being the creation of a united martial art (Tong-Il Mo-Do) in 1979. Its founder, Grand Master Jun Ho Souk, strove through scientific analysis to combine the techniques of various schools and achieve a harmonious combination of circular and rectilinear, soft and hard movements, as well as improve the technique of throws and punches. In addition, this martial art is designed to awaken the hidden idealism of the practitioner, harmoniously combine the values of the West and the East, spiritual and material, traditional and modern.
During the duel, each of the taekwon-do fighters equally uses both defensive and offensive techniques. Most often, athletes choose some one technique, thanks to which they win the maximum number of points. In accordance with which technique (attack or defense) the athlete prefers, they determine whether he belongs to the attacking or counterattacking type.
Taekwon-do is an art of defense, which means that attack techniques are not taught in the classroom. Sometimes, as self-defense, you have to use technical methods of attack, therefore training is carried out comprehensively, and is not limited to just practicing defensive techniques.
Taekwon-do does not use weapons and does not learn throws and blows to the head. This is not entirely true. Strikes to the head area are prohibited in competitions, but in real combat these techniques are quite effective to protect your life or the life of your loved ones. And for working with various types of weapons in this martial art there is a section called "khosinsul", and it depends only on the coach whether this section will be taught to students in full, partially covered, or not taught at all. In addition, it should be noted that techniques of this kind are rather difficult to comprehend. It is obligatory to study throws, methods of defense against an armed enemy, impact on vulnerable points, etc. is for athletes from 5th dan and above.
Mastering Taekwon-Do is best to start with studying the history of this martial art. It is best if the study of history and theory is harmoniously combined with the acquisition of practical skills (study of stances and movements, basic techniques, etc.). You need to train both body and spirit and mind, and it is best to do this at the same time in order to achieve harmony. Indeed, very often a fighter who has perfectly mastered the technique, but did not pay enough attention to psychological preparation, loses the battle to a weaker technically, but with a stronger fighting spirit, an athlete.
Participation in taekwon-do competitions is not necessary - after all, the original meaning of martial arts is to master defense skills, and not to strive to win the competition. Competitions in martial arts are needed, however, not with the aim of winning, but in order to test their own psychological readiness for battle and to test the consistency of their fighting technique, as well as their fighting spirit and the ability to put into practice all the knowledge gained during training. In some martial arts (for example, aikido), demonstration performances serve the same purpose, which sometimes are no less serious psychological tests than taekwon-do competitions.
Taekwon-do is a sport, and the knowledge gained in the classroom is of little use in everyday life. The main task of taekwon-do, like any other martial art, is to provide an opportunity to get out of difficult life situations with the least damage to physical and mental health and with maximum efficiency. This is not a question of receiving any awards during the competition. The main task of Taekwon-Do is to teach a person the methods of self-defense and protection of their loved ones and friends. In order to master this self-defense technique, it will take a lot of time and labor, but the result is worth it.
For Taekwon-Do lessons, specially equipped rooms are required. No, no equipment or specialized premises are required to master this type of martial arts.
If a person is over 30, he will not be able to practice Taekwon-Do. Of course, such a student will have a little more difficulties, but the road to martial arts is by no means closed for him. Moreover, there are special complexes designed to teach self-defense methods not only for quite adult men, but also for women who have crossed the fifty-year mark. An experienced trainer is able to properly organize classes for people of different ages, builds and skill levels.
You can practice Taekwon-Do yourself, using books and educational films. An independent study of this type of martial arts is possible only if a person has remarkable experience in any other types of martial arts, hand-to-hand combat or wrestling. If there is no such experience, it is better to train under the guidance of an experienced coach. After all, it is quite difficult for a beginner to master this or that technique without making mistakes. During training, the instructor immediately points out inaccuracies and explains the various nuances of a particular element, movement, stance. Studying martial arts on your own, you are deprived of the opportunity to receive any advice, therefore you can learn a lot wrong. But correcting movements that have been memorized with mistakes is much more difficult than learning them from scratch. Therefore, films and various kinds of Taekwon-Do literature should be considered only as an aid to training under the guidance of an experienced instructor, and not at all as the main teaching factor.
Martial arts practice is associated with a lot of injuries. Yes, most of the time you can't do without it Especially often in athletes who have been professionally and for a long time engaged in this type of martial art, knee joints are affected.However, it would be a mistake to consider Taekwon-Do the most traumatic sport. Indeed, in other seemingly safer disciplines (figure skating, rhythmic gymnastics, running, cycling), injuries are no less, and sometimes even more, than during martial arts.
It is better for small children not to engage in martial arts - they still will not achieve great success. Completely wrong opinion! First, in martial arts, competitors are matched with approximately the same level of experience and the same weight category. Secondly, the founding masters of many martial arts styles (for example, Gichin Funakoshi, the founder of Shotokan karate-do, and Morihei Ueshiba, o-sensei of aikido, and the founder of taekwon-do Choi Hong Hi) were neither tall nor large. physical strength, and in childhood they often stood out among their peers with a fragile physique and soreness. However, thanks to the efforts and perseverance, they managed to achieve great results, and won even much taller and physically stronger opponents in fights.
Taekwon-do girls become masculine. Of course, the body will become stronger, but the femininity of the girls involved in this type of martial arts does not lose, moreover, they retain their fragile physique.
Sick children cannot practice in the Taekwon-Do section. Yes, some sports do require perfect health. However, in the case of Taekwon-Do, there are no restrictions. Even if the child has a heart defect, asthma or joint diseases, you can do it. The only condition is that before starting classes, the coach should be warned that the child has certain health problems. The instructor will adjust the load, taking into account the physical capabilities of the little athlete - and after a while your little one will be able to work out together with everyone. After all, Taekwon-Do is not only an art of self-defense, but also an excellent tool for developing attention, perception, improving coordination of movements, as well as oxygen metabolism in the lungs and heart, etc.
It is rather difficult to choose a section. Indeed, the task is not easy. However, you should know what you need to pay attention to first. When choosing a section, be sure to attend at least one lesson and determine what is the main thing for a coach - victories and prizes, or is the mental and physical health of the students? And does he pay all children an equal amount of attention, or does he only deal with the most capable, giving the rest of the students complete freedom of action? Is discipline maintained during training? Fights between students, showdown and rudeness, or teasing and ridicule in class are not acceptable. In addition, keep in mind that you should never force a child to go to workouts - only his desire should be fundamental when choosing a section.
During taekwon-do competitions, the athlete will receive penalty points for striking the opponent's face. Much depends on how exactly the blow was struck in the face: if with the forehead or hand, the athlete receives a so-called warning - 0.5 penalty points. If a direct blow to the face was kicked in a jump, the fighter gets the maximum number of points (+3), if a kick to the face from a standing position led to the opponent's fall - 2 points, and in the case when the opponent only staggered from the blow - 1 point is awarded.
In Taekwon-Do, punches to the groin are prohibited. Yes, such blows will result in penalty points being awarded to the athlete who inflicted them. However, if the blow is the result of an exchange of techniques or the actions of the injured athlete led to its infliction, there will be no punishment.
If after the fight both athletes have an equal number of points, a draw is declared. No, in case of a tie, the winner is the competitor who delivered the most successful strikes and used attack tactics more often.
A Taekwon-Do fighter receives penalty points for misbehaving or speaking out to an opponent. It really is. Moreover, he can receive penalty points even if his coach leaves his designated place or behaves unworthily.
The fighter and his coach may appeal against the decision of the referee. An attempt to speak out against a judge's decision is classified as unworthy behavior and entails a warning - i.e. accrual of 0.5 penalty points.
The first practical results of Taekwon-Do practice will not be noticeable very soon. It depends on what results are in question. The first successes most often come after 3-4 months of training. To obtain colored belts ("gup" or "gyp"), the student must spend a certain amount of time. For example, it will take at least a month to get a white belt (10 gip), and to acquire yellow or in some schools white and yellow (9 gip), you will have to spend 2 months of hard training. It will take three months to get orange or yellow (8 gyps), green or yellow-green (7 gyps), purple or green (6 gyps) belts. A little more time - from 4 to 6 months - is needed to obtain blue or blue-green (5 gyps), blue (4 gyps), red or blue-red (3 gyps) belts. Another 6 months of regular training will make the athlete the owner of a light brown or red (2 gyp) and dark brown or brown (1 gyp) belt. And to get a black belt (first dan), you will have to spend at least 1 more year of hard training, and successfully participate in a considerable number of competitions. It should be borne in mind that the success of mastering and applying in practice this art of fighting depends on many factors: on the desire of the student, the qualifications of the instructor, the regularity and intensity of training, the physical data and fighting spirit of the student, etc.
A person who received a black belt in taekwon-do (1 dan) has achieved mastery in this art of fighting. Only from 7th dan a person who comprehends the art of taekwon-do acquires the title of master (moreover, in order to reach this level, one needs to train for at least 7-10 years and pass an oral and written exam). And given from 1 to 3 (assistant instructor) and from 4 to 6 (instructor) are considered only steps of the ladder leading to mastery. The black belt (1 dan) serves only as an indicator that the person who received it has mastered the taekwon-do techniques well, and to improve the spiritual side, the harmony of which is the hallmark of a true martial arts master, the student will have to spend a lot of time and effort.
Each belt in Taekwon-Do has a specific meaning. The lowest level of gradation - the absence of a belt - also has its own meaning (emptiness, chastity). A white belt means readiness for improvement, orange and yellow - a sun rise, a desire to gain knowledge. In spring, the pursuit of growth and improvement signifies the purple and green belts. Blue and blue belts symbolize heaven, youth, creativity, red - strengthening the body and character, blood and warning of danger. The brown belt is a symbol of a strong basis in military technique, unshakable character, it is the color of the earth, mountains. The black belt, which unites all colors, symbolizes the depth and strength of the knowledge gained during the entire training period.
The tenth dan in Taekwon-Do is awarded only posthumously. Yes, this dan was originally reserved for assignment posthumously. But these days, a few fighters from Korea (like Joon Jung Ri) still managed to get it in their lifetime.
Taekwon-do complexes are composed in the same way as ancient martial arts combinations. Unfortunately, this is not entirely true. In ancient times, movements were united into a complex on the basis of long-term practical research, which made it possible to develop a system of the most expedient combination of certain elements of military equipment. Nowadays, certain ideological prerequisites are most often used to create a complex. For example, the trajectory of movement sometimes repeats the spelling of one or another hieroglyph, the number of movements or complexes required for study corresponds either to some time interval (24 hours a day - 24 complexes officially adopted by the ITF), or to the legendary number of outstanding personalities (for example, hwaranov ). There are also cases when a complex of movements is a symbolic illustration of the life of one of the national heroes (for example, Admiral Li Sun Xing).
To achieve mastery in Taekwon-Do, one should devote as much time as possible to intensive training of the physical body. Indeed, regular exercise is absolutely essential. However, in addition to this, Taekwon-Do followers practice meditation, through which they receive "gi" - spiritual energy. It is thanks to self-deepening that athletes find inner peace that persists even in everyday life - this allows them to be more judicious and balanced both when meeting with an opponent and in the face of various life adversities. Meditation is an excellent way to relax and clear the mind of emotions, and also allows you to instantly focus on something and easily switch from one object to another. In addition, it should be remembered that the hallmark of a true Taekwon-Do master is a developed sense of justice, determination, humanism and high spiritual culture, and not only ideally developed martial skills and abilities - only beginners concentrate exclusively on the technical and applied aspect of martial arts.