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Monkeys (or real monkeys) are part of the primate order, which, in addition to them, includes semi-apes, great apes and humans. Tropical and subtropical regions are distinguished by a large variety of monkeys, the largest number of individuals live near water bodies. Some species have settled in the mountains, some live in rather cool conditions. Monkeys of different species may not look at all similar from each other in appearance, but they all have many common characteristics, so there is every reason to combine them into one taxon.
The size of the tail is different for different types of monkeys. Some have little or no tail. Other species boast a long tail. In this case, it serves as an additional fulcrum. These monkeys can hang on it, for example, in order to conveniently collect fruits.
American monkeys are very different from Afro-Asian. American monkeys - New World monkeys have a wide nasal septum, their nostrils are turned to the sides. They do not have cheek pouches. Whereas the Afro-Asian monkeys - monkeys of the old world - have a nose comparable to that of a man. Cheek pouches are present. They are needed to "collect" food. For example, baboons and macaques can stuff a lot of grain in them, and then, in a calm atmosphere, they already feast on them.
Coats are arachnid monkeys. The basis for such an original name was given by the thin limbs of these monkeys and their prehensile tail. All this together gives some resemblance to spiders.
The tail of the koata performs all sorts of tasks. It is very long - 1.5 times the length of the monkey's body. When a koata travels in the crowns of trees, its tail, the end of which is bare on the inside, slides along a branch located just above the one that the monkey is actually walking along.
Coats are the only true monkeys of their kind that can share food with their relatives. You can't deny their goodwill. They treat their fellow tribesmen very well.
America is home to the smallest monkeys. For example, marmosets. Their size does not exceed the size of a squirrel.
Dwarf marmosets (marmosets) are the most primitive monkeys. They are so small that they are comparable in size to mice. The size is like a mouse, but the length of the tail is an additional twenty centimeters! They feed on insects. Surprisingly, the jump length of these crumbs can be equal to two meters. The female gives birth to up to four cubs. The male is very actively involved in caring for the offspring: he carries children on his back all the time, giving them to the mother only for feeding with milk.
Howler monkeys are the largest monkeys in America. The body length of the male can reach up to ninety centimeters, the same length and the tail. These monkeys were gifted with this name for a reason, but for their loud roar, which is amplified by the laryngeal sac. Their original concerts begin in the early morning hours at five. The flocks of howler monks are relatively small, usually consisting of twenty individuals. The cubs are taken care of by the entire herd. The monkeys meet the night, being in the trees and winding their long tails on branches.
Three-lane durukuli are nocturnal monkeys. Found only in America. It got its name from the three black stripes on the forehead. Married couples of these monkeys arrange a dwelling in the hollows of trees. These are the only monkeys in the world that are active at night. Having the ability to see perfectly in the dark, they hunt birds and tree frogs at night, and also catch insects on the fly.
Saimiri are the most "brainy" monkeys in the world. Their brain weight relates to body weight as 1:17 (for comparison, in humans, the same ratio is 1:37). They are brightly colored, weighing up to one kilogram. Saimiri live in rather large flocks.
Capuchins are famous monkeys of the New World. The name of these monkeys came from the similarity of the color of their head with the attributes of monasticism. Some species have a crest, which resembles a monk's hat, while others - even more interesting - have a black spot on their heads, which looks like a circle cut off on the head of Franciscan monks. Capuchins form large flocks and always stick together. Sometimes they "communicate" with monkeys even of other species - they arrange games, and sometimes they fight! These monkeys are able to work with a stone, that is, for example, they crack nuts with it. And how well they can copy all sorts of movements of people - up to the imitation of the smoking process!
There is a strict subordination in the macaque tribe. These monkeys, very common in South Asia, choose their leader. In this system, the weak must obey the stronger, and the young monkeys must obey the elders.
Macaques can live in harsh environments. For example, magots - a species of macaque - live in the Atlas Mountains, where winter temperatures are -11 degrees Celsius. Japanese macaques also tolerate frost. They settled on the island of Honshu, where winter lasts for six months. In principle, they have adapted well to this weather. Their body is covered with thick hair, and the tail is very short. But not only nature helped them with good "clothes". Macaques are quick-witted: if they are cold, they cuddle together, walk in single file, etc. Surprisingly, it was possible to record how the macaques washed the tubers from the dirt and separated the wheat from the sand - while throwing the mixture into the water and collecting the grains floating up.
Rhesus monkeys help fight disease. With the help of these monkeys, scientists discovered the Rh factor. This discovery saved the lives of those children whose parents had a different Rh factor. In addition, these monkeys were the first monkeys in space.