Dubnos are united into a genus of birds of the finch family. Dubonos are endowed with a very beautiful plumage color.
The distribution area of grosbeak covers the territories of North India and North Africa, temperate latitudes of Asia and Europe. Prefers to settle in deciduous forests.
The construction of nests of the grosbeaks begins in April. The number of eggs in a clutch varies from three to seven. Incubation of eggs is the task of the female grosser, but both parents are involved in feeding the chicks. Chicks stay in the nest for an average of twelve days.
Dubnos are granivorous birds, but their diet includes not only seeds of various plants, but also insects.
The shape of the beak is a distinctive feature of grosbeaks. The massive, thick beak merges imperceptibly with the forehead. The beak is tapered.
The color of the plumage of grosbeaks is very beautiful. This applies only to the males of these birds. The back of the head, crown and forehead are light brown. The shoulders are chestnut brown and the neck is gray-pink. The uppertail of the grosbeak males has an olive-brown color. Wine-gray color is characteristic of the ventral side of the body, and black is characteristic of the flight feathers, chin, stripe around the beak, bridle and tail. The color of the plumage of the female gubonos is somewhat dimmer than that of the male.
Deciduous forests are a favorite habitat for grosbeaks. Moreover, if not far from them grow cultural silt, wild berry and fruit orchards. However, the grosser tree (despite this circumstance) may well settle in parks, groves, mixed forests and even pine forests.
Dubonos is a migratory bird. Only in the northern regions of its distribution area. In the southern areas of distribution, these birds are considered nomadic. To the nesting sites, Gublinos arrive in the spring - the beginning of arrival is in March, and the end is in May.
The construction of nests of the grosbeaks begins in April. The clutch contains three to seven eggs. Most often, however, their number is four or five. The surface of the eggs is pale greenish, endowed with a sparse pattern. The female is mainly engaged in incubation. At this time, the male feeds her, but only occasionally replaces her. Chicks hatch in the first half of July. They are in the nest for eleven to fourteen days. Both the female and the male take part in feeding the offspring (the food is insect larvae and insects themselves, as well as plant seeds). At the end of July, the first emergence of chicks from the nest occurs. At this time, various berries ripen, the seeds of which serve as a forage base for both adults and young grosbeaks. At first, the broods are kept separate from each other. Their merger takes place in August. At this time, small flocks of young grosbeaks wander through vegetable gardens and orchards.
Dubnos are granivorous birds. The diet of grosbeaks includes seeds of stone fruit and berry plants. These are seeds of bird cherry, plum, cherry, etc. the diet is somewhat diversified by seeds of corn, peas, sunflower, alder, ash, linden and maple. Gnats also eat insects. In those areas where the populations of grosser trees are numerous, fruit and berry orchards may experience some negative consequences for humans from visits to these birds.
Juniper grosbeak is distinguished by its plumage color. The belly, upper tail and loin have a greenish-yellow tint, and the back, chest, neck and head of this bird are endowed with a matte black color. A white mirror adorns the grosbeak's wing. The juniper grosbeak differs from the ordinary one and is larger in size. The juniper grosbeak got its name due to the specifics of its nutrition - it eats only juniper seeds. In connection with this circumstance, the distribution area of individuals of this species coincides with the areas of growth of juniper. The juniper grosbeak lives in the mountain juniper forests of Central, Western and Central Asia.
Mass oviposition of the common grosbeak falls in May. The nest is designed as a deep cup. Its diameter varies from twenty to twenty-two centimeters, the height of the nest is from eight to ten centimeters, the diameter of the tray is from seven to eight centimeters, and the depth of the tray is from four to five centimeters. Roots, twigs, and other coarse branches make up the outer layer of the nest as a building material. Horsehair, thin dry stems form the basis of the litter. Clutch usually consists of four or five eggs. The incubation period is two weeks. Chicks receive from their parents in the first days of life almost only insects as food. A little later, the chicks switch to plant food. Two clutches a year for grosbeaks is an almost impossible phenomenon. Departure occurs in late summer - early autumn.
The common grosbeak is widespread throughout Eurasia. Its distribution area is really quite wide and covers territories from the British Isles to Japan. However, these birds are still rare in territories extending far to the north and northeast. Thus, in the Scandinavian countries, grosbeak can be found very rarely. During migratory flights, common grosbeaks reach Turkey, Algeria and Morocco.
The common grosbeak can be kept at home. The attention of lovers is attracted by its beautiful color. However, as a tamed bird, grosbeak is still rare. Nevertheless, the life span of a grubber in a cage is long, and it does not take so long to tame. For keeping at home, the grosbeak requires a spacious cage. Wooden rods are unacceptable, as this bird bites them easily. Dubonos should always have access to fresh, clean water. Seeds (for example, flax, oats, sunflower seeds) must be included in the food ration of the gingerbread; bones (for example, cherries, bird cherries, cherries); berries (for example, mountain ash, bird cherry, sea buckthorn, wild rose, viburnum); fruits and vegetables (for example, apple, cucumber); branches-buds (actual in spring - buds of fruit trees). To improve digestion, the grosser should be given sand, chalk, gravel.
Dubonos has a phlegmatic character. This bird has a habit of sitting in the same place for a long period of time. At the same time, she practically does not move. But the grosbeak is still gifted with mental abilities. Individuals are quick-witted and courageous. Dubonos often cause significant damage to gardeners, and sometimes completely destroy the entire crop.
The blue grosbeak has a blue plumage. The body length of this bird is, on average, nineteen centimeters. Blue is the main color of the plumage, with a darker tone on the wings. On the wings they have clearly visible yellowish stripes. In females of blue grosbeak, the main color of plumage has a brownish tint, a bluish tint is observed only on the lower back. Young males are completely blue. Blue grosbeak is not easy to spot. Despite such a bright color of the plumage. In particular, in low light, the color becomes very dark and almost imperceptible (in this case, the grosbeak can be easily confused with a male oxbird).