The camel (Camelus) is a large mammal of the camel family of the artiodactyl suborder of the callopods suborder with a desert habitat, divided into two species: Bactrian (or Bactrian camel) and Dromedar (One-humped camel). Camels of both species have been considered domesticated for more than 5,000 years and are used mainly as pack and draft animals.
Camels cannot exist in mountains and areas with a humid climate. In the process of evolution, camels have developed a number of adaptations to the conditions of deserts and dry steppes. Camels eat desert plants that other animals eat poorly or not at all; are content with less water and can drink salt water. Unlike other ruminants, camels have two incisors in the upper jaw.
The parts of the camel's body that come into contact with the ground while lying down are equipped with corpus callosities; camels have pectoral, wrist, elbow and knee calluses. Thanks to this, camels are able to lie down on hot (up to 70 ° C) soil. Both hooves of each leg of a camel are insignificant. Camels rely on a wide soft paw, which makes walking on the sand easier.
The weight of an adult animal ranges from 500-800 kilograms, the life expectancy is from 30 to 50 years.
Camels live in Central Asia. They are also found from Asia Minor to Manchuria. One-humped camels can be found in North Africa, where they are common as pets, as well as in the Middle East up to India.
A camel can go without food for about a month. This is facilitated by the very fat deposits on the back of the animal, which we used to call humps.
Camels swim well. This is true, despite the fact that most of them have never encountered large bodies of water.
Camels live in harems. In groups of up to 15 individuals, several females and their offspring usually have one male. Sometimes you can find solitary animals.
The camel is a herbivore. Its multichamber stomach is able to digest almost any plant food, including prickly and salty ones.
Bactrian camels are different from one-humped camels. Bactrians have shorter legs, and the camel itself is more massive. Perhaps that is why one-humped camels are more frisky - in 11 hours they are able to cover a distance of 200 kilometers.
The camel tolerates desert heat well thanks to its humps. Oddly enough, but the humps of a camel are not adapted to store moisture. The camel's thick fur and 8-degree fluctuations in body temperature protect the camel from the heat of the day (as well as from the cold at night), which reduces the risk of overheating (including sweating) and hypothermia. When breathing, the liquid released from the nostrils does not leave the body, as it accumulates in a special fold, and then returns through the mouth to the body of the animal. It is also important to endure a dry climate that a camel that has reached the water, thanks to the special oval shape of its erythrocytes, is able to drink from 60 to 100 liters of water in a relatively short time (it is not for nothing that they say: "What are you drinking like a camel?") ... It is worth noting that the camel is an unpretentious animal in terms of water consumption - it is able to drink both pure and stagnant or salt water. Well, and finally, camel feces, due to elongated nephrons in the kidneys, are highly concentrated, and, accordingly, less moist.
The camel is very hardy. In a day, he can carry from 200 to 300 kilograms of weight over a distance of 50 kilometers or more.
Camel milk is very healthy. It contains a lot of substances necessary for the body (iron, calcium, magnesium, etc.), a high concentration of vitamins C and D, but casein, which makes it difficult for the body to assimilate dairy products, is much less than in the familiar cow's milk. When consuming camel milk, it must be remembered that due to its special properties, it may not immediately be assimilated by an organism that is not used to it.
Camel races are organized in the East. For example, in the UAE (United Arab Emirates), where on the roads you can easily find a sign: "Caution! Camels!" For the Arabians, camel racing is not only an exciting spectacle, but also a national tradition. Races are held here from October to April almost every week.
Camels are vindictive. They are quite insidious and vindictive. In Saudi Arabia, for example, there were recorded cases when camels took revenge on a person for the members of their herd offended by him. The character of a camel is generally quite harmful: make him do something against his will - you get an angry, biting, kicking, roaring animal.
In ancient times, camels took part in battles. They were used in ancient and medieval armies both for the transport of goods and horsemen, and for battles. In this case, two warriors were placed on the camel: one was a driver, the other was an archer.