Information

Arthritis

Arthritis

Arthritis is a disease associated with inflammation of the joints. This is due to the processes of change in the shape of the joint - it swells, becomes much less mobile.

Often, arthritis is accompanied by a state of fever. If the disease extends to only one joint, then we are talking about monoarthritis. If the disease affects many joints, then it is polyarthritis.

Distinguish between chronic arthritis (in this case, the development of the disease is slow and gradual), as well as acute arthritis (when the onset of the disease is unexpected and abrupt). Arthritis is either a self-developing disease or can be associated with others.

Inflammatory arthritis and degenerative arthritis are the most common types of this disease. There are also arthritis that accompany various diseases. These types of arthritis include arthritis due to influenza or Lyme disease.

Arthritis requires multifaceted treatment, and its different types have characteristic features and treatment. The need for surgical treatment often arises with rheumatoid arthritis. Physical therapy, massage and physiotherapy are of great importance. Treatment of arthritis in children and adults is somewhat different, as is the course of the disease itself.

Arthritis myths

Arthritis is a common condition. Relatively. This disease is diagnosed in one person in a hundred. This disease can develop in a person of any age. However, most often arthritis is observed in the elderly - statistics show that approximately 80% of people over sixty-five years old have arthritis.

Arthritis is not only a medical but also a social problem. Quite serious, because if arthritis becomes chronic, then a person can lose his ability to work.

Risk factors for arthritis are classified as genetic or acquired. The first group includes, for example, pathology of the joints, inherited. Genetic factors in the development of arthritis are found only in women. Acquired factors (resulting from environmental exposure) include smoking, joint injuries, stress on joints (for example, as a result of physical activity), and allergic diseases.

Arthritis is not a serious disease. It is not true. However, thinking in this way, many people are in no hurry to see a doctor, and in vain - after all, arthritis requires urgent intervention by specialists. It is known that pain in this disease is more pronounced in the morning (and towards the end of the night). The intensity of pain decreases markedly when a person walks about. Therefore, having endured the "morning" pain, a person lives calmly all day, another, third - a visit to the doctor is postponed and postponed, and the disease is aggravated and aggravated. Such a frivolous attitude to health should not be allowed by any person. Therefore, in no case should you wait for the appearance of severe pain and limitation of joint mobility. This disease can lead to both non-hazardous compositional changes and very serious changes in the synovial membrane of cartilage, capsules, bones and ligaments of the joints, as a result of which deformation of the joints may appear. Arthritis can be started to such an extent that surgical treatment is necessary - surgery to replace cartilage, joint replacement. This surgery is very time consuming and is used in extreme cases.

Arthritis is an insidious disease. It is difficult to predict and predict it. However, a joint that is susceptible to this disease can quickly change its structure. This change is irreversible and may well cause disability. For this reason, if a person begins to feel pain in a joint or spine (as the main symptoms of arthritis), then he should urgently consult a specialist in order to slow down the development of the disease at the initial stage.

Joint limitation and pain are the main symptoms of arthritis. If they appear, you should not think about visiting a doctor, since it is necessary. At the initial stage of the disease, it is not so difficult to reduce its activity - however, the treatment takes time from several days to several months; with proper treatment, the mobility of the spine and joints becomes normal, pain disappears.

Arthritis is a long-term medical condition. The main task in the treatment of this disease is not only to reduce its activity, but also to prevent re-inflammation. For this reason, patients with arthritis must constantly be under the supervision of a specialist and follow preventive measures.

Sports are contraindicated in arthritis. As you know, movement is life. However, if a person has brought arthritis to a pronounced form, that is, this disease has formed, then running, tennis and other sports activities that are associated with sharp and fast movements are harmful. Even being in a standing position for a long period of time is undesirable. A person with arthritis can benefit from such sports activities as swimming, dosed walking - that is, those exercises (exercise complexes) that contribute to muscle stretching. Training on simulators is possible, but only if they are supervised by an instructor.

Crackling joints are a sign of arthritis. Not always. It's a delusion. In simple terms, a joint is the articulation of bones. If a crunch appears in the joints, then you should not panic. If the crunch is not accompanied by the appearance of pain, swelling, body temperature remains normal, then arthritis is not even worth remembering. Some scientists dealing with this problem say that the cause of the crackling in the joints and clicks is gas bubbles. They arise in the fluid filling the joint capsule and burst here. Why does the crunch occur? Because when the joint is stretched (a common phenomenon when it moves), the joint capsule increases in volume. At the same time, the pressure in this bag is noticeably reduced, and the gas bubbles burst, merging with each other, with a characteristic sound. Other scientists call the friction of the articular surfaces the cause of crunching and clicks in joints. Such friction occurs due to a lack of joint fluid. The latter can result from increased physical stress on the body.

Crackling in the joints is a harbinger of arthrosis. Often. One can not guess about the occurrence of this joint disease for a long time, since the cartilage of the joints is destroyed gradually - this process can last for many years.

Inflammatory arthritis is a type of arthritis. One of the main ones. Inflammatory arthritis is associated with inflammation of the membrane that covers the joint from the inside. The subtypes of inflammatory arthritis include purulent (or infectious) arthritis, gout, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Purulent arthritis associated with the penetration of the pathogens of pyogenic infection into the joint is divided into primary and secondary. Primary purulent arthritis can develop in the presence of a wound. Secondary arthritis occurs when an infection enters the joint from the blood or from adjacent tissues. Purulent arthritis is characterized by damage and articular cartilage resulting from its destruction. This type of disease is able to provoke the development of periarticular phlegmon (phlegmon is an acute inflammation of adipose tissue, which is diffuse - not delimited) - in this case, the patient has severe pain, chills, and the temperature rises markedly.

The exact causes of rheumatoid arthritis are unknown. The defeat of the joints in this subtype of arthritis is similar to the defeat of the type of polyarthritis. The most common cause of rheumatoid arthritis is the influence of microorganisms: such as viruses, streptococci, and others. It is believed that genetic factors (that is, due to heredity), as well as damage to the human immune system, play a role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. The onset of rheumatoid arthritis, as a rule, is acute - most often the lesion begins with one joint (that is, we are talking about monoarthritis), and then spreads to others, and in this case, the small joints of the hand are more susceptible to inflammation. This subtype of arthritis is characterized by the presence of severe pain, which tends to increase with movement and exercise. The intensity of pain decreases at night. Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with the process of muscle tissue atrophy. In this subtype of arthritis, rheumatoid nodules form in the skin. Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by high disability - about 70% of all cases. Disability comes early. Rheumatoid arthritis can be fatal as a result of kidney failure and the infectious complications of arthritis.

Degenerative arthritis is another type of arthritis. Inflammatory arthritis and degenerative arthritis are the most common types of this disease. Degenerative arthritis is characterized by damage to the articular cartilage. The subtypes of generative arthritis include osteoarthritis and traumatic arthritis.

Joint contusion is the main cause of traumatic arthritis. This disease can also occur as a result of movement that exceeds the physiological limits of the joint. Most often, traumatic arthritis affects the elbow, shoulder, knee and ankle joints, the course of arthritis is associated with the appearance of pain and swelling. Treatment of traumatic arthritis depends directly on the location of the damaged joint and the nature of its damage.

Arthritis accompanies the flu. A significant number of people with the flu report feelings of joint and muscle damage, and the likelihood of developing arthritis is greatest ten to fifteen days after the onset of the flu. Such arthritis usually develops as a result of an allergic nature. Often, arthritis becomes chronic.

Arthritis is associated with Lyme disease. Lyme disease can develop after a tick bite - it is caused by spirochetes. In the initial stage of the disease, patients have some stiffness of the neck. A few months after the onset of Lyme disease, the patient develops arthritis.

There are several methods for making the diagnosis of arthritis. An X-ray is done for a patient suspected of having arthritis. It is an X-ray of the affected joint, which is performed in two projections - according to this study, it is possible to determine whether the patient has arthritis or not. In addition, tomography, atrography and some other studies are often used to help the specialist make a more accurate diagnosis. If arthritis spreads more to small vessels, then it is advisable to use radiography with an increase in the image. The doctor can get additional information from thermography data. This study allows you to determine the changes in local heat transfer. These changes are common in arthritis.

Arthritis requires a variety of treatments. This is indeed the case. The use of antibacterial drugs (that is, etiotropic therapy) is advisable only for some forms of the disease. These include allergic, infectious, and gouty arthritis. When acute joint inflammation has subsided, physiotherapy is advisable. The latter reduce the intensity of the pain syndrome, and are also able to prevent the disruption of the normal functioning of the joints. Physical therapy (PBL) and therapeutic massage are of great importance for arthritis. Their purpose is to preserve the correct functioning of the affected joint and prevent contractures. Contracture is a limitation of joint mobility. Surgical treatment is not always required, in particular, it is often necessary for rheumatoid arthritis.

Arthritis in children has its own characteristics. The main one is a pronounced exudative component of inflammation. In addition, arthritis in childhood often begins acutely (it is in children that the development of rheumatoid arthritis, which is characterized by the severity of its course, is observed much more often than in the adult part of the population). This disease affects a large number of organs.

Children have their own characteristics in the treatment of arthritis. In the case of childhood morbidity with arthritis, there must be a comprehensive treatment. It should include a course of inpatient, spa treatment, as well as constant dispensary monitoring of the child's health, which is carried out by a district pediatrician or cardioreumatologist. The treatment prescribed for the child must be adjusted every three to six months, thereby choosing the most effective and efficient treatment, exercise therapy and physiotherapy play an important role.

Joint pain and arthritis are quite common in humans. Arthritis is a common name for any joint disease. The causes of diseases are many - these are infections and metabolic disorders. Arthritis is a fairly common disease, with more than 40 million people suffering from it in the United States alone, with one in six becoming disabled. It is this disease that is the main cause of disability in the country; more than 60 billion dollars are spent annually on the treatment of the disease in America. The disease is as common as it is shrouded in myths. Experts from Harvard Medical School describe the most common misconceptions associated with arthritis, in particular, they reveal the differences between it and joint pain, which is based on other factors.

Arthritis is an independent disease. There are more than 100 types of arthritis or factors that cause it. It is customary to refer to this group of diseases and gout, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Moreover, for some arthritis, special treatment methods have been developed that allow you to completely get rid of the disease. It is worth knowing that almost identical methods are used to treat many types of arthritis. Doctors use analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs (naklofen, roxicam, diclonat, ortofen and others). We must not forget that arthritis can be inherited.

The first sign of arthritis is joint pain. Arthralgia (joint pain) is not always a sign of arthritis, joint inflammation. Much more often, these unpleasant sensations are caused by inflammation of the tendon (tendenitis), inflammation of the bursa of the joints (bursitis), degenerative diseases of the joints (osteoarthritis), or injuries resulting from mechanical action on the joints. The reasons can lie generally outside the joints, so the source can be a banal flu or fibromyalgia, which cause these unpleasant sensations.

All arthritis is extremely painful.Ideally, of course, it is better to do without such diseases at all, but you should not be afraid of panic. After all, arthritis often takes on mild forms. In this case, the quality of life deteriorates, but the discomfort does not entail disability or severe suffering. But rheumatoid arthritis can lead to disability. In general, this whole myth is generated by the fact that the medical literature deals mainly with complex types of arthritis, and not mild ones, so it gives a general impression of the serious nature of the disease.

All factors in the occurrence of joint diseases and arthritis in particular have long been known. Arthritis is considered to be an autoimmune disease. Therefore, it is not entirely clear what factors cause many types of arthritis. Scientists naturally put forward many theories that explain the causes of diseases. For example, osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative form, can be inherited, a consequence of various injuries or obesity. But to explain why some people get the disease, while others do not, doctors are not yet able to. A similar picture is with other types of arthritis.

All arthritis, as well as joint diseases in general, are an inevitable sign of old age. Not only people in old age can get arthritis, but also young people. Degenerative diseases (osteoarthritis) are quite common in elderly patients, although many people over the age of 70 do not have such a disease or any signs of the disease at all. Even in children, arthritis occurs, although naturally much less frequently than in adults. In such cases, treatment is much more difficult, since it affects the formation of joints and bones, as well as the psychological background of children.

Osteoporosis must be accompanied by pain in the spine or back. This type of arthritis is most often painless. However, the disease leads to a decrease in bone strength, which significantly increases the risk of fractures. Most often, the patient before the fracture does not even suspect about the disease, since it is asymptomatic. Then the pain arises, which lasts for several weeks. Also, discomfort in osteoporosis can occur due to compression of the nerves, since the disease can lead to curvature of the spine. That is why, in the prevention of such a disease and its treatment, it is not at all necessary to wait for painful symptoms, since most often they will indicate an already advanced osteoporosis. Doctors recommend that many patients (mostly women at the age corresponding to menopause) undergo screening, which will determine the density of bones, in order to further determine the moment of onset of the disease and exclude possible fractures.

Eating high-calorie and fatty foods is a significant prerequisite for the occurrence of gout and arthritis. This delusion is several centuries old. Once upon a time, people noticed that lavish feasts with a lot of food and wine lead to the appearance of gout attacks. But as scientists have found, diet does not have much effect on gout attacks, but alcohol and certain foods can provoke pain. Today it is known that even medications used, for example, for hypertension and kidney disease, can cause seizures. High-calorie or fatty foods in this case have absolutely nothing to do with it. But substances rich in hondoprotectors included in the patient's daily diet may be useful. So it is worth recommending eating chicken and meat cartilage. And fish dishes also contain substances useful for joints. It is not surprising that in countries with a large amount of seafood in the national cuisine, the number of arthrosis is noticeably lower.

Modern research reveals the causes of joint damage. These means are usually "experts" include nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or computed tomography. In fact, these studies only help diagnose fractures or problems, detect cancers in patients, or detect all kinds of relapses. It is not surprising that these studies are not used to determine the causes of joint pain, as well as related diseases - tendonitis, bursitis. Gout, lupus erythematosus, early stage rheumatoid arthritis and others. Cartilage, ligaments and tendons are practically invisible on radiographs, in addition, some people have congenital changes in the joints that do not cause any inconvenience to the owners. X-ray or MRI may detect some changes in the body, but it is not known whether the source, for example, of back pain. Doctors can prescribe such studies, but they do it selectively. And besides, practice shows that they are of little use as a result, they only alienate the doctor and the patient from the real cause.

Arthritis can be diagnosed with a blood test. There are actually certain blood tests that give accurate results. However, one should not forget about the existence of some restrictions on conducting such studies for the diagnosis of joint diseases. Thus, the determination of the ESR level contributes to the diagnosis of inflammation, the determination of rheumatoid factor can indicate the likelihood of rheumatoid arthritis, and antinuclear bodies contribute to the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. However, such an analysis is fraught with erroneous results, because the results may show violations, although the disease itself will not appear. Statistics claim that 30% of healthy people have antinuclear antibodies in their blood, and the OSE generally rises with the simplest cold. Therefore, doctors try not to resort to blood tests, as they can only cause confusion and give incorrect results.

Arthritis is generally incurable. As already mentioned, there are a large number of forms of arthritis, the main thing in treatment is diagnosing the type of disease. It is worth recognizing that the list of drugs that are used to treat various forms is far from optimal, often drugs do not eradicate the disease, they also cause side effects, and the drugs are not always affordable for patients. Nevertheless, today there are still effective and safe methods of combating arthritis, and research on this disease also gives hope for the emergence of new options for combating it. For example, it turned out that drugs that are used to neutralize tumors also successfully help in the fight against rheumatoid arthritis.

Arthritis can be caused by mites. But this statement is true. The fact is that the bite of such insects can cause Lyme disease. First, stiffness forms at the site of the bite (for example, on the neck), then arthritis develops.

You cannot treat arthritis with hormones, as they get fat from them, and addiction develops. Also, patients are afraid that hormones will destroy bones. In fact, the hormones used to treat rheumatoid arthritis are natural anti-inflammatory agents. One of the side effects they actually have is weight gain, and high doses can reduce bone mass. However, it is worth considering that such treatment is prescribed for only a few months, adherence to the medication regimen and the dosage indicated by the doctor will preserve bone mass.

Injections into the joints destroy cartilage, and people become addicted to such treatments. If this were true, then the injections would not have been approved by the health authorities. The joint, however, can really collapse due to the wrong appointment and frequent injections (more than 3-4 times a year).

Arthritis is more common in men. In fact, it is the weaker sex that is more susceptible to such diseases. It is all to blame for the special protective mechanism developed in them during evolution, which provokes the appearance of immune reactions to inflammatory processes in the body. This is especially pronounced after menopause in women, when their hormonal protection is lost. But men also have their own Achilles heel. It is they who are more susceptible to infectious reactive arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, which affects the ligaments of the spine.

Joint diseases arise from injuries. This is only partly true. In athletes, arthrosis is usually the case. Their body is constantly overloaded, as a result, the surface of the joints is exposed, as the cartilage wears out and cracks much faster than in ordinary people. The same picture can be observed in overweight people. But reactive arthritis is generally the result of an infection. For example, chlamydia can affect the genitourinary system and tissues, including joints. It is very difficult to cure this infection, but you can get infected not only through sexual contact, but also when wiping with someone else's washcloth or towel. There is a whole group of genitourinary arthritis. Few would be able to associate knee pain with an upset bowel movement shortly before. But a rheumatologist can determine further treatment with the help of detailed information about the patient's well-being and his lifestyle.

It is impossible to independently determine the form of arthritis. In fact, you need to learn to listen to your body, first of all, to determine the nature of pain. With arthrosis, the joints of the legs are most often affected, which bear the maximum load. Also, this type of arthritis is characterized by a mechanical rhythm of pain accompanying movement. But rheumatoid arthritis claims to exist with acute pain in the joints of the feet and hands, while it is symmetrical. Reactive arthritis of an infectious nature is usually asymmetric, only one joint aches. In this case, the pain can jump from one leg to the other. Only a comprehensive and professional examination of doctors can fully confirm the diagnosis.

The diagnosis of arthritis automatically puts an end to the exercise. Thinking so is a mistake, because physical inactivity is harmful to diseased joints as well as healthy ones. To strengthen the muscle frame, cycling, swimming, skiing are very useful. This will improve the metabolism in the diseased joint and prevent it from "numb". Of course, a number of types of loads will have to be abandoned. It's about running, jumping, squatting and lifting weights. It is best, ultimately, to consult with your doctor in this matter.

Watch the video: How Yoga Can Help With Arthritis (November 2020).